Dispelling nutrition myths, ranting, and occasionally, raving


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Will soy give you strong bones? Spoiler: maybe, if you’re a rat

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Recently there was a lot of criticism of a NYT article about what’s making us fat that was really about what diets might make mice fat. Along the same lines is this research from the University of Missouri that found soy diets might increase women’s bone strength.

The study was not on actual human women though, of course. No, this study’s participants were rats. These rats are apparently a good proxy for human women because they are selectively bred to have low fitness levels and, “average American women are relatively inactive both before, and especially after, menopause”. Essentially, both American women (particularly older women) and these rats are lazy so they’re totally interchangeable when it comes to research. As it’s much harder to get women to adhere to specific diets, and there are far more variable to control for and ethical considerations when it comes to human experiments, it just makes sense to use rats.

So, these rats were divided into two groups: one group was fed a corn-based diet (you know, just like the average post-menopausal American woman eats) and the other was fed a soy-based diet. The results showed that: “the tibia bones of the rats that were fed soy were stronger compared to the rats who were fed the corn-based diet, regardless of ovarian hormone status”. Leading to the conclusion that: “Bottom line, this study showed that women might improve bone strength by adding some soy-based whole foods to their diet”.

To recap: rats were fed either corn-based rat food or soy-based rat food. The rats fed the soy-based rat food were found to have stronger leg bones. Therefore, human women can increase their bone strength by eating more soy.

This is ridiculous. We are not rats. We do not live the same lives as laboratory rats. We are not all sedentary. We do not eat the same food as laboratory rats. It is a huge leap to say that this study in rats shows that consumption of soy by women can lead to stronger bones. We are not eating a homogenous diet of corn-based rat food. The forms of soy we consume as humans are very different from that in rat food (e.g. tofu, soy beverage, tempeh, edamame, TVP).

Perhaps soy-based foods can increase bone strength in humans but this study doesn’t tell us that. This study tells us that this breed of rat has stronger bones when fed a soy-based diet than when fed a corn-based diet.


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If men got pregnant…

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Today I just want to rant a little bit about the patriarchy and research, particularly in relation to mothers and pregnant women. You’ve likely all heard about the difference between men and women when it comes to heart attacks, leading to missed diagnoses in many women, and how most drug trials are done using men so that we have very little evidence regarding the efficacy and side effects of many medications on women across their lifespan.

Then you see results of studies like this one which, despite the cognitive effects of alcohol consumed during breastfeeding no longer being evident when children are 10 years of age, provides the message that breastfeeding women should not consume alcohol. This despite the fact that alcohol is removed from breastmilk at the same rate as it is from the bloodstream. This means that while pumping and dumping is an ineffective measure to prevent infants from consuming alcohol via breastmilk that mothers can still safely consume alcohol and breastfeed provided they allow for adequate time for alcohol to clear from the milk. If you’re a breastfeeding mum, you can use this table to determine how long you’ll need to wait after drinking before you can breastfeed your baby (unfortunately, it might be longer than you would think).

Women who are of childbearing age are often told not to consume alcohol at all. Just on the off chance that they might get knocked up and damage the fetus before they realize that they’re pregnant. Women who are pregnant should definitely never consume any alcohol at all because their baby might end up suffering the effects of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). And yet, many perfectly healthy babies are born to women who consume alcohol during pregnancy, indicating that there is likely a window (or windows) during which a certain amount of alcohol may be consumed without affecting the development of the fetus.

Pregnant women are shamed for drinking coffee, and some have even been refused coffee by baristas (and they say dietitians are the food police!). This despite the fact that pregnant women can safely consume up to 300 mg of caffeine a day (about the amount you’d get from a grande coffee). And the fact that the research on caffeine consumption during pregnancy is mixed.

Pregnant women are not allowed to eat: soft cheese, deli meat, sushi (unless it’s veggie), raw eggs, tuna (and other large fish), organ meat, raw sprouts, paté, unpasteurized juice or cider, store-made salads, and packaged salads, many herbal teas.

Naturally we want to exhibit an abundance of caution when the health of the woman and the fetus/infant are potentially at risk. However, I bet that if men were the ones giving birth that we would know exactly how much of all these things could be safely consumed during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the precise windows during which they needed to be avoided. But because (cis) men don’t give birth or breastfeed but they generally conduct most of the scientific research we are told to err on the side of caution. I mean what do they care if we can’t have a beer for 30 or so years because we might get pregnant at some point during that time, or enjoy some lovely brie because there is a teensy risk that we might get listeriosis and miscarry. As long as we are protecting their offspring that’s all that matters. And if a woman dares to defy all of the dietary restrictions placed on her during pregnancy societal shaming will cause her to toe the line. After all, questioning these restrictions shows that you are an unfit mother and selfishly putting your enjoyment of bruschetta ahead of your own child for whom you should be enthusiastically giving up everything for while your husband is out drinking with his buddies.

Please note: I am not suggesting that women who are pregnant reject all of this dietary advice. There are very real risks to consuming these foods and beverages during pregnancy. I am however suggesting that we reject the unquestioning acceptance of these restrictions because you know that if men were the ones getting pregnant there would already be a body of research into precisely what could be consumed when.


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Do girls start craving chocolate in the womb?

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A recent study was reported as showing that “a woman’s craving for chocolate may start in the womb”. Kind of interesting, I guess. Except the study didn’t really show this at all.

The researchers took 100 pregnant women who hadn’t had chocolate in the past 90 days. 46 carried a male fetus and 54 carried a female. The researchers then measured the heart rates of the babies both before and after the mothers ate 30 grams of 80% cocoa chocolate. All fetuses showed more movement after their mothers ate the chocolate. However, the female fetuses became considerably more active. Interesting, no? More interesting to me is that female fetuses are more active (with or without chocolate) on average than male fetuses. 

But… I can’t help but wonder what the result would have been if the mothers had eaten a food other than chocolate. Perhaps the fetal movement had nothing to do with chocolate per se. I also think it’s a bit of a stretch to come to the conclusion that this study is showing that the origin of female chocolate cravings is in the womb. Increased movement doesn’t necessarily equate to cravings later in life.